About Malvidin, Peonidin, Petunidin, Delphinidin, Cyanidin

About Malvidin

Malvidin is an anthocyanidin. As a primary plant pigment, its glycosides are highly abundant in nature. It is primarily responsible for the color of red wine, Vitis vinifera being one of its sources. It is also one of the anthocyanidins responsible for the blue pigment found in the Primula polyanthus plant.

Slightly acidic and neutral solutions of malvidin are characteristically of a red color.

Not many studies have focused on the health effects of malvidin. A German study found a very low absorption of malvidin-3-glucoside in humans after consumption of in red wine or red grape juice. The study suggested that not malvidin-3-glucoside but rather not yet identified anthocyanin metabolites and/or other polyphenols in red wine might be responsible for the observed antioxidant and health effects in humans consuming red wine. [48]

Anticancer: One in-vitro study demonstrated that malvidin is cytotoxic to human leukemia cells. Malvidin stopped the cell cycle in the G(2)/M phase and induced apoptosis. At a concentration of 40 ppm malvidin the growth of the leukemia cells was halved. For this experiment the researchers used malvidin extracted from black rice. It is not yet know if malvidin has the same protective action in humans. [49]

About Petunidin

Petunidin is a natural organic compound. It is a particular type of anthocyanidin (not to be confused with anthocyanins which are glycosides of anthocyanidins). It is a dark-red or purple water-soluble pigment found in many redberries including chokeberries (Aronia sp), Saskatoon berries (Amelanchier alnifolia) or different species of grape (for instance Vitis vinifera, or muscadine, Vitis rotundifolia), and also part of the pigments responsible for the petal colors in many flowers. The name of the molecule itself is derived from the word Petunia.


About Peonidin

Peonidin is an anthocyanidin, and a primary plant pigment. Peonidin gives purplish-red hues to flowers such as the peony, from which it takes its name, and roses. It is also present in some blue flowers, such as the morning glory.

Like most anthocyanidins it is pH sensitive, and changes from red to blue as pH rises. This happens because anthocyanidins are highly conjugated chromophores. When the pH is changed, the extent of the conjugation (of the double bonds) is altered, which alters the wavelength of light energy absorbed by the molecule. (Natural anthocyanidins are most stable in a very low pH environment; at pH 8.0, most become colorless.) At pH 2.0, peonidin is cherry red; at 3.0 a strong yellowish pink; at 5.0 it is grape red-purple; and at 8.0 it becomes deep blue; unlike many anthocyanidins, however, it is stable at higher pH, and has in fact been isolated as a blue colorant from the brilliant "Heavenly Blue" morning glory (Ipomoea tricolor Cav cv).

Because of its unusual color stability, a cafeyl-acylated buffered formulation of it has been patented for use as food coloring.

Peonidin, like many anthodcyanidins, has show potent inhibitory and apoptotic effects on cancer cells in vitro, notably metastatic human breast cancer cells. [50] A very large question, however, has been raised about anthocyanidins' penetration and retention in human cells in vivo, due to their rapid elimination from the human body.

By far the greatest dietary source of peonidin is raw cranberries, blueberries, plums, grapes, and cherries also contain significant amounts, ranging from 5 to 12 mg/100 g. Only fresh fruit has been shown to contain significant peonidin; frozen blueberries have been shown to contain almost none.

The higher levels of peonidin in fresh fruit corresponds to the rule of thumb that more natural fruit is healthier.

Res-Juventa Reserveratrol ComplexAbout Delphinidin

Delphinidin is an anthocyanidin, a primary plant pigment, and also an antioxidant. Delphinidin gives blue hues to flowers like violas and delphiniums. It also gives the blue-red color of the grape that produces Cabernet Sauvignon, and can be found in cranberries and Concord grapes as well as pomegranates.

Delphinidin, like nearly all other anthocyanidins, is pH-sensitive, and changes from blue in basic solution to red in acidic solution.

Delphinidin, an Anthocyanidin in Pigmented Fruits and Vegetables, Protects Human HaCaT Keratinocytes and Mouse Skin Against UVB-Mediated Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis. (Journal of Investigative Dermatology)[51]


About Cyanidin

Cyanidin is a natural organic compound. It is a particular type of anthocyanidin. It is a pigment found in many redberries including but not limited to grapes, bilberry, blackberry, blueberry, cherry, cranberry, elderberry, hawthorn, loganberry, acai berry and raspberry. It can also be found in other fruits such as apples and plums. It is also found in red cabbage and red onion. It has a characteristic reddish-orange color, though this can change with pH, red ph < 3, violet at pH 7-8, blue at pH > 11. The highest concentrations of cyanidin are found in the skin of the fruit.

Effects on the human body: Cyanidin, like other anthocyanidins, has putative antioxidant and radical-scavenging effects which may protect cells from oxidative damage and reduce risk of cardiovascular and heart diseases and cancer. One theory is that dietary intake of cyanidins may inhibit development of obesity and diabetes as well as contain inflammatory mechanisms. [52].

Other studies have generally shown that the glucoside derivative of cyanidin may have a role in cancer therapy.[53]

Cyanidin and its glycosides may have pharmacological properties. These phytochemicals are responsible for the deep colour (mainly red, orange and blue) of many plants and fruits. They have many health promoting properties including anticarcinogenic activity, vasoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity and anti-diabetes effects. Cyanidin glycosides are easily absorbed into the plasma.

Antioxidant: Cyanidin and its glycosides are very strong antioxidants and are active at pharmacological concentrations. The antioxidant activity is stronger than that of vitamin E, vitamin C and resveratrol and similar to other commercial antioxidants. Cyanidin quickly neutralizes reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide, reactive oxygen and hydroxyl radical.

Diabetes: A study in Japan by Takanori Tsua et al indicated that cyanidin may have benefits for the prevention of obesity and diabetes. Cyanidin rich extracts significantly reduced the boy weight gain of mice fed with a high fat diet. Cyanidin reduces blood glucose level and improves insulin sensitivity due to the reduction of retinol binding protein 4 expression in type 2 diabetic mice.

Anti-Toxic: Many studies have demonstrated the anti-toxic effect of cyanidin, mainly against mycotoxins. Cyandin reduces DNA fragmentation and oxidative damage by aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A.

Anti-Inflammatory: The consumption of anti-inflammatory foods, mainly plants rich in anthocyanins, may help to control inflammation. Cyanidin from cherries alleviates arthritis in an animal model and reduces the serum level of malonaldehyde, which is a biomarker to measure the level of oxidative stress. Cyanidin suppress the inflammatory effect of zymosan in rats.) It can have important implications for the prevention of nitric oxide mediated inflammatory diseases.

Anti-Cancer: There are numerous studies demonstrating the anti-cancer activities of cyandin. The anti-cancer and anti-mutagenic properties of this anthocyanin is directly linked to its antioxidant properties. In-vivo and in-vitro studies are linking cyanidin to a reduced risk of leukemia, lung cancer, colon cancer, skin cancer and prostate cancer. Cyanidin induces cancer cell apoptosis, reduces oxidative damage to DNA, inhibits cell growth and decrease cancer cell proliferation

Hear Health: Endothelial dysfunction causes the development of atherosclerosis, which can result in heart health problems, including stroke and heart attacks. Cyanidin increases the levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and heme oxygenase in a dose-dependent manner and inhibits the formation of reactive oxygen species induced by platelet-derived growth factor, a protein which has been linked to the development of atherosclerosis.

Skin Protection: Studies suggest that cyanidin might successfully be employed for skin protection. Ultraviolet radiation of the skin tissue causes production of reactive oxygen species, resulting in oxidative stress, cell damage and eventual cell death or skin cancer. Cyanidin neutralizes free radicals and decreases the number of tumors induced by ultraviolet B radiation in rats. Treatment of cultured skin cells with cyanidin attenuated unfavorable biological changes caused by the radiation

Ischemia Reperfusion: The strong antioxidant capacity of cyanidin can be beneficial in conditions of increased oxidative stress, such as during a myocardial ischemia, cerebral ischemia or liver ischemia. Myocardial ischemia is a disease characterized by reduced blood supply to the heart muscle, usually due to atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries. Its risk increases with age, smoking, high cholesterol levels, diabetes and high blood pressure. When blood supply restores after a period of ischemia reperfusion injury to tissue can occur. Cyanidin reduces oxidative damage to organ cells during reperfusion


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